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Expositors Of Prophecy


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#61 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 04:02 AM

NAME:

Cressener, Drue

ABOUT:

English Protestant comentator and theologian.

WHAT HE WROTE:

‘‘The first appearance of the Beast was at Justinian’s recovery of the Western Empire, from which time to about the year 1800 will be about 1260 years.



For if the first time of the Beast was at Justinian’s recovery of the City of Rome, then must not it end till a little before the year 1800.

Drue Cressener, ‘The Judgments of God upon the Roman Catholick Church’, pages 309, 312, 1689


Where-ever was there an Empire since the writing of the Prophecy, but that of the Roman Church, that was so Universal for 1260 years together, as to have all that dwell upon the Earth, Peoples, and Multitudes, and Nations, and Tongues, to worship it?

What Ruling Power, but that, so Ancient, as to have the Blood of the Prophets, and Saints, and of all that were slain upon Earth, of that kind for that space of time, to be found in it?

What Rule but that, had ever so long a duration in the World, as to continue set upon an Hill, much less upon seven Hills, for so great a space of time... ?’

Drue Cressener, ‘A Demonstration of the First Principles of the Protestant Applications of the Apocalypse’, preface, pages viii, ix, 1690


Edited by Fortigurn, 04 October 2003 - 04:03 AM.


#62 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 04:03 AM

WHAT OTHERS WROTE ABOUT HIM:

‘3. I turn to Jurieu’s English contemporary, Dr. Cressner.



By the celebrated Dutch scholar and politician Grotius, and by our English Dr. Hammond, a præterist view was adopted of the Apocalyptic prophecy about the Beast and his great city Babylon, very like Alcasar’s;  [42]  referring it all to the old Pagan Roman city and empire.

Dr. Cressener himself, writing in the year 1690, strongly speaks of the change: (I subjoin the passage,  [43]  as well worth perusal:) and tells moreover how the very study of those prophecies had in consequence fallen into disfavor.  [44]

His own Book, which was first published in 1690, and is dedicated to the Queen Mary, then reigning with her consort William of Orange, is entitled A Demonstration of the first Principles of the Protestant Applications of the Apocalypse, and well answers to its title.

Its one grand subject is the Apocalyptic Beast of Apoc. xiii. and xvii. And in a series of connected propositions he incontrovertibly establishes, against Alcasar and Bellarmine, that the Apocalyptic Babylon is not Rome Pagan, as it existed under the old Pagan Emperors; nor Rome Paganised at the end of the world, as Ribera and Malvenda would have it to be; but Rome Papal, as existing from the 6th century.

For, he argues, it is Rome idolatrous and antichristian, as connected with the Beast or Roman Empire in its last form, and under its last head;  [45]  which last head is the seventh head revived, after its deadly wound with a sword: with and under which the Beast exists all through the time of the old empire into ten kingdoms, until Christ’s second coming to take the kingdom.

The 6th, or imperial head ruling in St. Johns time, must, he argues, have fallen at the latest at the time of Herulian chief Odoacer, and Ostrogothic king Theodoric, reigning in the 5th century.  [46]

And he concludes (though here, I conceive, exception might be taken against him) that the 7th head was the Herulian and Ostrogothic, which continued but a short time: the 8th being the revived secular imperial, confederated with a Roman ecclesiastical head, somewhat as under the old emperors;  [47]  i.e. the secular Western emperors combined with the Popes.  And he suggests Justinian’s æra as that of the commencement of the last head.  [48]

The image of the Beast he makes to be the Roman Church, the name Aareinov.  [49]

E B Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae, volume 4, 1862



#63 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 04:03 AM

[42]  So Bossuet traces the parentage of this view: - Le savant Jesuite Louis dAlcasur, qui a fait un grand commentaire sur IApocalypse, où Grotius a pris beaucoup de ses idees. He speaks also of its being the view of the learned Romanist Genebrard, A.D.1580, (in his Chronography, 5 Sæc. Ann. 415,) as well as of Grotius and Hammond. Pref. sur lApoc. § 11, 13.

[43]  After speaking of Grotius, Hammond, and some other great names of late among ourselves, who have excused the Church of Rome from any concern in the judgments of this (Apocalyptic prophecy, and the shifts they had been obliged to resort to, such that the most skillful of the Romish interpreters themselves had cried out against them he notes it as the result of a foregone determination so to interpret the prophecy as to set aside the old Protestant views.

Their expedient for Catholic union of all Christian Churches by the compliance of the Roman, their assurance of the conveyance of a right succession and ordination by a Church that was not formally idolatrous, &c., were altogether inconsistent with the Protestant sense of the Apocalypse.

And then Dr. Cressener goes on to say; The present age is so generally prepossest with the interpretations of these learned men, that it is necessary to remind (the approvers) that these are great novelties in the doctrine of the Church of England… 

It is manifest by the Homilies approved of in our Articles as the faith of our Church of England: * and it continued to be the currect judgment of all the best learned members of it till the end of the reign of King James the 1st. Indeed, in his time it was believed to be so clear and important a part of the faith, that both the Church and the Court did applaud the King in his public defense of it.

But, adds Cressener, after that time this doctrine of the Homilies came to be more out of fashion: either to be civil to the marriages of the succeeding reigns, or to take away all the advantage that the Separatists might have from thence against the necessity of an uninterrupted succession and ordination in every lawfully-constituted Church.  Pref. pp. ii. - 14.

* In the Homilies he refers to the 3rd Part of the Sermon against Isolatry, and 6th Part of the Sermon against Rebellion.

Of other writers he specifies Bishop Jewel, p. 373; Bishop Abbot, Antichristi Demonstratio; Archbishop Whitgift, Tract. 8; Bishop Andrewes, Tortura torti; Bishop Bilson, p. 527; Bishop Morton; and Hookers Treatise on Justification, § 10, 57

[44]  [writes Cressener]  The enquiry into these matters is so out of fashion, and lies under so general a prejudice, that I found the Press everywhere affrighted from undertaking the charge of this publication. Epist.  Dedicatory to Queen Mary.

[45]  This involves the entire identity, as is stated in his argument, p. 59, of the Beast in Apoc. xiii. and Beast in Apoc. xvii.

[46]  p. 160.

[47]  The Emperor being Pontifex as well as Imperator.

[48]p. 192.

[49]p. 274, 275.



Altogether Cressener’s book must be regarded as an important accession to the Protestant cause, and Protestant argument, against the Romanists.’

E B Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae, volume 4, 1862



#64 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 04:05 AM

NAME:

Cyprian of Carthage

ABOUT:

Early Church Father.

WHAT HE WROTE:

’Moreover, the Antichrist was prophesied to come when the times of the Roman empire have been completed

But this aforesaid Antichrist is to come when the times of the Roman empire shall have been fulfilled, and the end of the world is now drawing near.

There shall rise up together ten kings of the Romans, reigning in different parts perhaps, but all about the same time; and after these an eleventh, the Antichrist, who by his magical craft shall seize upon the Roman power...’

Cyprian, ‘Lecture 15’, paragraphs 9,12, 315-386 AD


Edited by Fortigurn, 04 October 2003 - 04:05 AM.


#65 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 04:07 AM

NAME:

Daubuz, Charles

ABOUT:

It is to be understood that Daubuz was by birth a French Protestant; found refuge in England on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes; there took orders in the Anglican Church; and, while Vicar of Brotherton near Ferrybridge in Yorkshire, wrote his Perpetual Commentary on the Apocalypse, which was first published in a solid folio, A.D. 1720.

E B Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae, volume 4, 1862



#66 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 04:07 AM

WHAT OTHERS WROTE ABOUT HIM:

The following may serve as an abstract in brief of his opinions. The reader of my Horæ must already have formed a measure of acquaintance with him.

The seven Epistles then he explains, not like Vitringa as prophetical; but in the natural way, as depicting the actual state of the seven Asiatic Churches respectively: albeit with application to the Church Universal, in its earthly suffering state, to the end of time.

In the Seals Daubuz, though admitting A.D. 95 or 96 to be the year of the Revelations having been given to St. John, yet antedates the subject of the 1st Seal; and makes its white horse and rider depict the victorious progress of Christ gospel, even from his ascension.

Thus he is enabled to explain the red horse in the 2nd Seal of the wars by which Jerusalem and the Jews were destroyed, from A.D. 66 to A.D. 135; including as well the Jewish wars of Vespasion and Titus, as those of Trajan and Adrian.

The 3rd Seal, beginning A.D. 202, he expounds of scarcities begun in the reign and æra of Severus,  [88]  much as Brightman before him; the 4th (like Brightman also) of the Decian and Valerian æra of war, famine, and pestilence; the 5th (as Mede, &c.) of the Diocletian persecution; the 6th of the Constantinian Revolution, and fall of Paganism from its supremacy in the Roman empire.

[88]  Kai to elaion kai ton oinon mh adikhsthv he renders, like Mede, Heinrichs, and myself, Thou shalt not do wrong about the oil and wine.



The Trumpets, which Daubuz supposes to mark a new period, following on, not contained in, the 7th Seal,  [89]  are explained by him mainly as by Mede and Jurieu, of the desolations and fall, first of the Western empire, then the Eastern; under the assaults successively of the Goths, Saracens, and Turks.

More particularly he thus divides the four first: - 1. Alarics ravages from A.D. 395 to 409: 2. Alaries capture of Rome, A.D. 410, and the ravages of Gaul and Spain by the Goths and Vandals: 3. Attilas ravages, 442-452, A.D.: 4. the fall of the Western Empire under Genseric and Odoacer, from 454 to 476.

[89]  p. 347

E B Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae, volume 4, 1862



#67 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 04:07 AM

And so too the meaning of the temple:  [90]  the outer court given to the Gentiles indicating that there would still exist paganized Christians, to tread the holy city: and both the reformed and the corrupted Christians keeping to their own lots (separately), till the term of the 42 months is lapsed since the Gentiles began.  [91] 

[90]  p. 496.

[91]  p. 501



In Apoc. xii. he interprets the vision of the travailing Woman and Dragon, much as others before him; with reference to the crisis of the Diocletian persecution, and Constantine’s immediately following elevation to a Christian throne, and casting down of Paganism from its supremacy in the Roman empire.  [94]

[94]  p. 520 on Apoc. xii. (N.B. on Apoc. xii. a wrong paging commences in Daubuz; the first being 481, instead of 565.)



Then in Apoc. xiii. the first Beast is the decem-regal Republic of Western Christendom,  [95]  under Rome as its head; Rome the earliest head of the Dragon, excised by the Gothic invaders, but revived under the Popes.

[95]  Here, p. 556, Daubuz notes Whiston’s list of the ten kings, as one that had preceded his.


The second Beast is the Beast Ecclesiastical, or False Prophet; its two horns being the Roman Popes, and the Constantinopolian Patriarchs.



Finally, in Apoc. xix. Daubuz interprets the hallelujahs and thunderings heard on the fall of Babylon, (i.e. here of Papal Rome,) to indicate the conversion of the Jews, and incoming of the fullness of the Gentiles: explains the first resurrection in Apoc. xx. literally, of the saints and martyrs rising from the dead, and millennial reign with Christ: also the New Jerusalem as the habitation and state of the Church after the resurrection of the saints, both during the millennium and afterwards; the Church being in the saints moral state betrothed to Christ; but after the resurrection his gunh, or wife.  [104]’

[104]  p. 967.

E B Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae, volume 4, 1862



#68 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 04:09 AM

NAME:

D’ Casale, Ubertino

ABOUT:

One of the disciples of Joachim De Fiore, and leader of the Franciscan Spirituals (a strict division of the Franciscan Order of the priesthood). D’Casale largely followed Joachim’s interpretation of the Apocalypse, with some variations.

WHAT OTHERS WROTE ABOUT HIM:

’Leader of the [Franciscan] Spirituals, born at Casale of Vercelli, 1259; died about 1330.

He assumed the Franciscan habit in a convent of the province of Genoa in 1273, and was sent to Paris to continue his studies, where he remained nine years, after which he returned to Italy.

In 1285 he visited the sanctuaries of Rome, and thence proceeded to Greccio, near Rieti, to see the Blessed John of Parma, who was considered as the patriarch of the Spiritual Friars.

Afterwards he settled in Tuscany and in 1287, at Florence, was the companion and disciple of Brother Pierre-Jean Olivi.’

Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1911


‘Ubertino de Casale, who wrote his Arbor vitae crucifixae at the beginning of the fourteenth century, was even more explicit in his designation of the beast and the Antichrist.

To him, the first beast of Apc 13 was Pope Boniface VIII (1294 -1303)and the second, Benedict XI.’

Irena Backus, 'Reformation Readings of the Apocalypse', introduction, page xviii, [b]2000[B/][/I]






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