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Expositors Of Prophecy


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#21 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:10 AM

‘For many being bribed, he [the Emperor] brought it to pass, that contrary to custom, a certain Bishop should be elected, a Roman, named Laurentius.

For the sake of these persons, murders, robberies and numberless other evils were perpetrated at Rome…

For nearly 150 years, about fifty Pontiffs, from John VIII. until Leo IX., were found gravely wanting in sharing the virtuous nature of their ancestors, themselves Apostles of apostasy rather than Apostles of the apostolic succession.’

Baronius, Catholic historian, ‘Annales Ecclesiastici’, 1600


WHAT OTHERS WROTE ABOUT HIM:

The difficulties which beset Baronius in the publication of the "Annals" were many and annoying. He prepared his manuscript unaided, writing every page with his own hand. His brother Oratorians at Rome could lend him no assistance. Those at Naples, who helped him in revising his copy, were scarcely competent and almost exasperating in their dilatoriness and uncritical judgment. The proofs he read himself.

His printers, in the infancy of their art, were neither prompt nor painstaking. In the Spring of 1588 the first volume appeared and was universally acclaimed for its surprising wealth of inforomation, its splendid erudition, and its timely vindication of papal claims.

The "Centuries" were eclipsed. Those highest in ecclesiastical and civil authority complimented the author, but more gratifying still was the truly phenomenal sale the book secured and the immediate demand for its translation into the principal European languages. It was Baronius' intention to produce a volume every year; but the second was not ready until early in 1590.

The next four appeared yearly, the seventh late in 1596, the other five at still-longer intervals, up to 1607, when, just before his death, he completed the twelfth volume, which he had foreseen in a vision would be the term of his work. It brought the history down to 1198, the year of the accession of Innocent III.

Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1911



#22 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:14 AM

NAME:

Beatus of Liebana

ABOUT:

‘St. Beatus of Liebana was a monk of San Martin de Turieno in Liebana.  His place of birth is unknown, but must have taken place while the memories of the Muslim invasion were still a living memory.  Beatus attracted attention around 786 because of his involvement in the Adoptionist controversy… 

At some point during this period Beatus composed, or compiled, a commentary on the Apocalypse.  In this commentary Beatus explains the Apocalypse through a patchwork of writings borrowed from a variety of Church Fathers and other sources.  The Commentary was appropriately divided into symbolically numbered sections: twelve books with seventy sections of the Apocalypse. Some of these sections, or "storiae," consisted of only a few verses.

These were followed by lengthy "explanationes" or glosses.  The Morgan manuscript is the oldest known version of the Beatus commentary and it must have depended on an earlier model.

Two distinct lines of Beatus illustration can be identified, the more elaborate of which is represented by the Morgan Beatus.  There has, not surprisingly, been controversy over which line represents the older tradition. 

It is not known exactly what visual sources provided Beatus with a model for his Commentary, although the lost Tyconius Commentary of 385 is a good candidate.
Beatus' text for the Apocalypse uses a North African Latin translation of scripture which predates Jeromes' Vulgate.

Article, 'Medieval Art, Iconography and History',  source


‘Beatus, Sancti Beati a Liébana Commentarius in Apocalypsin, ed. by Eugenio Romero Pose, 2 vols, Rome, 1985. 

Beatus quotes and cites abundantly from Victorinus/Jerome, Tyconius, Primasius, once from Apringius as well as other sources e.g. Irenaeus, Augustine, Ambrose, Fulgentius, Gregory of Elvira, Gregory the Great and Isidore of Seville (see the list of sources in Pose's edition)

He divides his commentary into twelve books: each has prologue of varying length.

Beatus' commentary was little known outside Spain but has attracted a great deal of attention because of its twenty-six illuminated texts.  See Wilhelm Neuss, Die Apokalypse des lh. Johannes in der altspanishcen und altchristlichen Bibel-Illustration, 2 vols. Münster, 1931. and John Williams, The Illustrated Beatus, 5 vols (three already published). 

Beatus' main emphases are on the holiness of Church, (bks. 1,2,6,12), the defence of divinity of Christ (bks 3 and 11) and a polemic against adoptionists, especially Bishop Elipandus of Toledo.

During his time there were Increasing threats from Moslems but there is little indication of this in Beatus' text.  It is, however, prominent in the illuminations.  Beatus was influenced by the Song of Songs and its interpretations culled from Gregory's Moralia (see bk 4), the letters of Jerome (see bk1) and commentary on Luke by Ambrose. (bk 6) .

From ‘The Apocalypse of John In the Western Tradition’, notes on a syllabus of a seminar on the New Testament, source



#23 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:16 AM

NAME:

Bede, The Venerable

(Also known as Beda)


ABOUT:

’The Venerable Bede, who lived in the north of England at the close of the seventh century, was an historical interpreter of the Apocalypse. Here is a copy of his commentary.  He takes the first seal to represent the triumphs of the primitive Church. He expounds the lamb-like beast of Revelation 13 as a pseudo-Christian false prophet.’

Grattan Guinness, 'Romanism and Reformation', lecture 5, 1888


Edited by Fortigurn, 04 October 2003 - 03:17 AM.


#24 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:16 AM

WHAT OTHERS WROTE ABOUT HIM:

’The Venerable Bede, ca. 730, Explanatio Apocalypsis ed. David Hurst ( also PL 93).

Bede became one of the chief sources for future commentaries on the Apocalypse. He produced a scholarly analysis.  He directs his discussion to the history of church on earth but he does not overlook cosmic history. He espouses a division of church history that is different from Primasius, thus 3 bks. (bk 1, periochas 1-2; bk 2, periochas 3-4; bk 3 periochas 5-7).

In a dedicatory letter he uses the seven rules of Tyconius to describe the seven ages of world which he sees reflected in the text of the Apocalypse. 1-3:21- although John describes seven churches they are one in unity; 4:1-8:1 addresses future conflict and victories; 8:2-11:19 future events in church; 11:20-15:4 the church symbolized by woman; 15:5-16:21 the seven plagues; 17:1-20:15 the defeat of evil epitomized in the prostitute; 21-22 the New Jerusalem.

Bede sees the life of church against background of universal history.  The church moves into sacred time. Later exegetes could accommodate this to the events in their contemporary churches.Translation of Bede Explanatio Apocalypsis Cistercian Press, forthcoming, J. Massyngbaerde Ford.’

From ‘The Apocalypse of John In the Western Tradition’, notes on a syllabus of a seminar on the New Testament, source



#25 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:19 AM

NAME:

Bell, George


ABOUT:

English expositor who correctly interpreted the 1260 years of Church rule from 538-1798 (his anticipated date of 1797 as the time that judgment would fall, was only 1 year early), and who published his predictions two years before they came true.

Bell’s exposition proved that the Historicist understanding of the little horn of Daniel 7 and the deadly wound of the beast of Revelation was completely correct.

Notably, the fact that his predictions were also based on the 7 heads of the first beast representing forms of Roman governments (as understood previously by Osiander, Fulke, James I, Foxe, and others), proves this interpretation of the heads to be correct also.

#26 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:19 AM

WHAT HE WROTE:

‘In the London Evangelical Magazine of 1796 appear two illuminating articles by George Bell, on the "Downfall of Antichrist," written July 24, 1795.

…He then comes directly to the time of the rise and fall of Antichrist, based on the internal evidence of the prophecy.

First, its rise would not be until after Western Rome's division, and we are therefore "not to look for his appearance before the year 407.“’

Again, he would not appear until after the "subversion of the imperial government of Rome," and "this obstacle was taken out of the way in the year 476.“ 

It would appear soon thereafter, but "not instantly."



Bell's third point is based on the seven heads or governments, the sixth being the emperors-that form falling in 476 under Augustulus.  Then the Gothic kings chose Ravenna as their seat of government, but held Italy from 476 to 553 - but "lost the government of Rome in the year 537.“

So the papal was to follow the imperial.’

He concludes:

"If this be a right application of events to the prophecy, then Antichrist arose about the year 537, or at farthest about the year 555. He continues 42 months, or 1260 prophetical days, that is, 1260 years, Rev. xiii.5.; consequently we may expect his fall about the year 1797, or 1813.“’



Then, logically coming to the predicted earthquake, which "signifies a revolution," and France as the tenth part of the Babylonian City-when "One of the ten kingdoms under the dominion of Rome would fall off, or revolt from her jurisdiction“ - he declares, "Have we not seen, in one of the ten kingdoms, a most astonishing revolution?  Have we not also seen that kingdom fall off of the papal jurisdiction?"

Bell then concludes, saying, "Have we not good ground to hope that the accomplishment of the prophecies, respecting the rising of the witnesses and the fall of antichrist, is near at hand?“’

Le Roy Edwin Froom, ‘The Prophetic Faith Of Our Fathers’, volume II, pages 741-743, 1948



#27 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:22 AM

NAME:

Bellarmine, Cardinal Robert


ABOUT:

Architect of the Counter-Reformation, and considered one of the most learned scholars of the Church, Bellarmine is also known as one of the greatest supporters of the institution of the papacy. Bellarmine was significantly responsible for the development of the Futurist interpretation of prophecy.

Involved in a number of the great controversies of his day, Bellarmine is perhaps most well known for his ludicrous statement against Galileo.

It was Bellarmine who was chiefly responsible for the incompetent management of Galileo’s examination by the Church, and his words on the matter demonstrate how terribly the judgment of an intelligent man may become corrupted and blinded by unthinking slavery to dogma.

#28 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:22 AM

WHAT HE WROTE:

‘First…  to want to affirm that in reality the sun is at the center of the world and only turns on itself without moving from east to west, and the earth revolves with great speed around the sun…  is a very dangerous thing, likely not only to irritate all scholastic philosophers and theologians, but also to harm the Holy Faith by rendering Holy Scripture false.

Nor can one answer that this is not a matter of faith, since if it is not a matter of faith "as regards the topic," it is a matter of faith "as regards the speaker"; and so it would be heretical to say that Abraham did not have two children and Jacob twelve, as well as to say that Christ was not born of a virgin, because both are said by the Holy Spirit through the mouth of the prophets and the apostles.’

Bellarmine, in a Letter to Foscarinin, April 12, 1615


‘’The church,’ said Luther…  'has never burned a heretic‘…

I reply that this argument proves not the opinion, but the ignorance or impudence of Luther.

Since almost infinite numbers were either burned or otherwise killed, Luther either did not know it, and was therefore ignorant, or if he was not ignorant, he is convicted of impudence and falsehood; for that heretics were often burned by the church may be proved if we adduce a few examples.’

Robert Bellarmine, ‘Disputationes de Controversis Christianae Fidei’, Tom. II, cap. XXII, [B]1581-93[/B


Edited by Fortigurn, 04 October 2003 - 03:22 AM.


#29 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:22 AM

WHAT OTHERS WROTE ABOUT HIM:


‘A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at Montepulciano, 4 October, 1542; died 17 September, 1621.  In 1576 he was recalled to Italy, and entrusted with the chair of Controversies recently founded at the Roman College. 

He proved himself equal to the arduous task, and the lectures thus delivered grew into the work "De Controversiis" which, amidst so much else of excellence, forms the chief title to his greatness.’

Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1911


To say that Bellarmine ‘proved himself equal to the arduous task’ of ‘Chair of Controversies’ is simply untrue, given his incompetent handling of the Galileo controversy, his dishonest treatment of the controversy of the Edition of Sixtus (a Bible translation of incredible incompetence issued by Pope Sixtus, which was so appalling that it was recalled by Bellarmine after Sixtus’ death), and his gross mishandling of the controversy of the interpretation of Revelation against the position of the Reformers (his futurist interpretation makes significant concessions to the Historicist position, and is in contradiction not only with Scripture, but also with the Early Church Fathers and with itself).

#30 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:23 AM

‘This monumental work was the earliest attempt to systematize the various controversies of the time, and made an immense impression throughout Europe, the blow it dealt to Protestantism being so acutely felt in Germany and England that special chairs were founded in order to provide replies to it.  Nor has it even yet been superseded as the classical book on its subject-matter, though, as was to be expected, the progress of criticism has impaired the value of some of its historical arguments.’

Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1911


The praise here given to Bellarmine’s work ‘De Controversiis’ is rightly qualified by the words which have been highlighted. What this really means is that Bellarmine’s work – though considered a magnificent defence in its day – has suffered greatly in succeeding years, its faulty arguments and inadequate reasoning having been exposed by later critics, but that a superior work has never been produced by the Romanist scholars since.

To put it another way, it is here admitted that the best work ever produced by Catholic apologists was written around 400 years ago, has not stood the test of time, and has not been replaced by a superior defence. A sad state of affairs for the Catholic Church.

In fact, even in its day Bellarmine’s work (though considered a major challenge to the Protestants), was repudiated vigorously by some excellent Protestant responses (which the Catholic Encylcopaedia coyly neglects to mention). I

n particular the work of Whittakker (an outstanding Protestant scholar of the 16th century, whom Bellarmine admired greatly), dealt a massive counter-blow to the arguments of Bellarmine and a number of his fellow Jesuits.

#31 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:23 AM

‘Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621), focused his attack on the year-day principle.

•  Capitalized on Luther’s hesitation over Apocalypse

•  Main assault centered on year-day application

•  Assigns symbols to past and future, thereby eliminating application to the long papal ascendancy of the Middle Ages.

•  Exploits variations on time of the Antichrist

The heart of Bellarmine’s thesis was both clever and plausible, though deceptive.

(1) Antichrist is an individual Jew, and not an apostate Christian system.

(2) Therefore the length of his exploits must harmonize with the life period of one man - three and one half literal years, and not 1260 years.

LeRoy Edwin Froom, ‘The Prophetic faith of Our Fathers’, volume 2, excerpts from pages 464-532. 1948



#32 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:26 AM

Name

Berengaud

(Also known as Berengaudus)

ABOUT:

From the best which may be determined, Berengaud was monk of the Benedictine order who wrote in the 9th century (the 800’s).

WHAT HE WROTE:

'…[by Daniel's fourth Beast] the Romans are designated. It is described as having had ten Horns, signifying those Kingdoms which destroyed the Roman Empire...

The Vandals conquered Africa for themselves; the Goths, Spain; the Lombards, Italy; the Burgundians, France; the Franks, Germany; the Huns, Pannonia; and the Alani and the Suevi… depopulated many areas.'

Berengaud, 830



#33 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:26 AM

WHAT OTHERS WROTE ABOUT HIM:


‘I now return Westward from Greek Christendom, to note a somewhat later Latin Expositor of the Apocalypse;  [165]  one whose epoch, I now think, was near about the conclusion of the period included in this Section, though elsewhere referred by me to a considerably earlier period: - I mean Berengaud.



An approximation this to his real age which well agreed with that drawn by the Benedictine editors of Ambrose, from his specification of archdeacons receiving hush-money for overlooking the fornication of the priesthood, as a sin of the then times: this crime being prominently noticed in Synods held at Paris, Chalons, and Aquis-Granum, in the same ninth century.  [168]

But the crime continued flagrant long after, so as to be by no means any certain or specific chronological designative.  [169]  And a notice as to the then existing Jerusalem being inhabited by Christians  [170]  seemed to me afterwards to mark a much later æra than the 9th century; in fact one subsequent to the taking of Jerusalem by the crusaders. A lateness of date corroborated by the late epoch at which Berengaud’s comment is said to have come into notice.  [171]

[165]  In passing let me here briefly notice a curious passage that occurs in a Treatise on Antichrist by Adso, a monk of the monastery of Derve in Champagne; dedicated to Gerberga, Queen of Louis d'Outremer, and consequently of about the date of 950 A.D.



[166]  Auisquis nomen auctoris seire desideras, literas expositionum in captibus septem visionum primas attende. Numerus quatuor vocalium quæ desunt, si Græeas posureris, est 81. Now the first letters of these seven parts, or visions, are B R N G V D S: and if eeao be inserted, which together make up (5+5+1+70 = 81,) the name will resut, Berengaudus.

[167]  Saraceni totam Asiam subegerunt, Gothi Hispaniam, Longobardi Italian, Hæe regua, co tempore quo visio ista Johanni demonstrata est, potestatem nondum acceperant: sed unà horà tanquam reges potestatem acceperunt, quia singularum istarum gentiam potestas pauco tempore permansit. So on Apoc. xvii.

[168]  See my Vol. i. p. 473, Note 1, where Berengaud is also noticed.

[169]  See my Vol. ii. p. 14.

[170]  See p. 182, Note 1581.

[171]  I copy what follows from Mr. C. Maitlands book, p. 349: About this time (viz. 1400 A.D.), without name or date, the Apocalyptic Commentary of Berengaud stole into notice. It was first copied from by the Block Book Apocalypse, published soon after 1400: and next quoted by Dionysius the Carthusian, who wrote not later than 1470. So too Dr. S. R. Maitland, before him; Reply to Morning Watch, pp. 19, 20.

E B Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae, volume 4, 1862



#34 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:27 AM

The Commentary is one too original to omit noticing; and goes on a regular connected chronological plan, which (however unsatisfactory it may be as an exposition) makes it easy to read, in comparison with the other Latin Commentaries of the æra under review.

This chronological plan is sketched at the outset, and adduced repeatedly, even to the end.

It is founded on the frequent septenary division of the Apocalyptic prefigurations: to all which seven (except the seven epistles to the churches) Berengaud supposes that substantially the same chronological reference and order attaches; a chronology commencing from the creation, and reaching to the consummation.



Then, passing on to the vision of Apoc. xvii., the Beast-riding Harlot is explained (besides her general signification as the world) to be especially Rome; and her predicated burning and spoiling by the ten kings, as the destruction of ancient Rome by the Gothic barbarians: [189]  with reference however, as Rome was professedly Christian at that time, to the reprobate in her:)

[189]  I beg my readers to mark this.’

E B Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae, volume 4, 1862



#35 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:29 AM

NAME:

Bernard of Cluny

ABOUT:

‘Bernard of Cluny (or of Morlaix), a Benedictine monk of the first half of the twelfth century, poet, satirist, and hymn-writer, author of the famous verses "On the Contempt of the World". 

His parentage, native land, and education are hidden in obscurity.

The sixteenth-century writer John Pits (Scriptores Angliae, Saec. XII) says that he was of English birth.  He is frequently called Morlanensis, which title most writers have interpreted to mean that he was a native of Morlaix in Brittany, though some credit him to Murlas near Puy in Béarn.

It is certain that he was a monk at Cluny in the time of Peter the Venerable (1122-56), for his famous poem is dedicated to that abbot.  It may have been written about 1140. He left some sermons and is said to be the author of certain monastic regulations known as the "Consuetudines Cluniacenses", also of a dialogue (Colloquium) on the Trinity.

The "De Contemptu Mundi" contains about 3,000 verses, and is for the most part a very bitter satire against the moral disorders of the monastic poet's time.  He spares no one; priests, nuns, bishops, monks, and even Rome itself are mercilessly scourged for their shortcomings.

For this reason it was first printed by Matthias Flaccus as one of his testes veritatis, or witnesses of the deep-seated corruption of the medieval Church (Varia poemata de corrupto ecclesiae statu, Basle, 1557), and was often reprinted by Protestants in the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.’

Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1911



#36 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:29 AM

WHAT HE WROTE:

‘Rome gives all things to all who give all things to Rome, for a price, because there is the way of justice, and all justice is dead. 

She wobbles like a rolling wheel, hence shall Rome be called a wheel, who is wont to burn like incense with rich praises…  The peace that wisdom cannot, money gives you.  Money makes agreements and restrains the threatener…

If money is given, pontifical favor stands near; if not, that is afar off--that is the law and teaching obtaining there."

Bernard of Cluny, as quoted by Le Roy Edwin Froom, ‘Prophetic Faith Of Our Fathers’, volume I, page 632, 1948



#37 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:32 AM

NAME:

Bicheno, James

ABOUT:

An English Baptist expositor and preacher whose work on the Apocalypse came at a critical time, during the French Revolution. Many of his comments on prophecy were highly influential on expositors both contemporary subsequent, including Brother Thomas.

Like many others of his day, Bicheno expected the fearful events of the French Revolution and its aftermath to be a precursor of the return of Christ. The ravages which were enacted on the Catholic Church were seen by him to be the final judgments of the Babylon of Revelation, and he anticipated the Kingdom to be set up shortly.

#38 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:34 AM

WHAT HE WROTE:

'Dr. Increase Mather, in his Exhortations to Faith and Fervency in Prayer, published in 1710, considered the wars and calamities which then prevailed, as a loud call to the church and the nations to watch and be ready.

"The providence of God," says he, p. 87. "at this day is calling us to prayer.  Great things are doing in the world.  Wonderful revolutions there have been in our days, and greater are expected.  Are not the nations in travailing pains?  We see the beginning of sorrows; are not the judgments of God abroad on the earth?  The sword is devouring in many places, and in some the famine and pestilence.

A vial is pouring upon the earth, and if we consider our state, does it not call for prayer?  What frowns of heaven have been upon us! and so much the more should we be fervent in prayer as we see the day approaching, when the glorious prophecies and promises shall receive their accomplishment. 

We are assured that when the sixth trumpet, called also the second woe, has done its work the seventh trumpet, called the third woe, will come quickly.  Now there is reason to hope that the second woe is past, that is, that the Turk will be no more such a plague to the apostate Christian world as for ages past he has been.

At the same time when the second woe passeth away there is to be a great earthquake; in that earthquake, one of the ten kingdoms, over which antichrist has reigned, will fall

There is," says he, p. 97, "a great earthquake among the nations.  May the kingdom of France be that tenth part of the city which shall fall!  May we hear of a mighty revolution there! we shall then know that the kingdom of Christ is at hand."'

James Bicheno, 'A Word in Season', pages 20-21 1795



#39 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:34 AM

'More than two years ago I ventured to publish my opinion that the prophecies which refer to the final overthrow of all antichristian oppressions and corruptions were beginning to be accomplished, and that the prediction (Rev. xi. 18.) respecting the anger of the nations, and the wrath of God, was verifying; and that the first vial of wrath (Rev. xvi. 2.) was begun to be poured out (Signs of the Times); and though I am no prophet, and may be mistaken, yet I hope I may be permitted, without being accused of presumption, to give my opinion as to the progress which I suppose these judgments have made, and what we have to expect.

Hitherto, the vial on the earth appears to have prevailed; but now there are striking indications of the speedy pouring out of that whihc is allotted for the sea (Rev. xvi. 3.).  Does this prophetic representation allude to the judgments of God which are to fall on maritime powers, on navies, and on insular countries?  Every thing looks like the approach of its accomplishment.

Are the French the instruments which God is using for the chastisement of the nations, and for the accomplishment of his purpose?  Hitherto they have been obliged to exert their force in other quarters; but Providence seems loosing them from their former restraints, and it is probable that, making peace with some of their continental enemies, they will be at liberty to bend their force more immediately against this country, and to exert all their naval power forthe destruction of our navy.

This struggle for naval pre-eminence, and for the overthrow of our government, will, it is likely, turn the sea into blood, and bring upon this country more dreadful evils than it has ever known.

On subjects like these diffidence and modesty becomes us.  Even though the hypothesis, founded on the above passage, be just, viz. that this country will be the next to experience the awful visitation of God, yet it may be brought about in ways the least thought of. 

Even when events may be prettly clearly revealed, yet the manner of their accomplishment may be no part of the revelation, and the methods of Providence may disappoint all of our best formed conjectures.

But however these things may be, yet that some afflicting change in our situation will soon take place, that some calamity, dreadfully awful, will sooon burst upon this country, everything indicates.'

James Bicheno, 'A Word in Season', pages 44-45 1795



#40 Fortigurn

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Posted 04 October 2003 - 03:34 AM

WHAT OTHERS WROTE ABOUT HIM:

’His Signs of the Times in three parts, first published in 1793, and which came to its 6th edition in 1808, was his Restoration of the Jews in 1806.  The page on Part i. of The Signs of the Times itself tells this feeling: - Signs of the Times; or, The overthrow of the Papal tyranny in France, a prelude of destruction to Popery and Despotism, but of peace to mankind.

He looked in fact with something like religious complacency, from the very first, on the awful judgments that the Revolutionists seemed God’s appointed agents for inflicting on the Papal power which had been for ages the bloody persecutor of Christ’s saints, and enemy of Christ’s truth: judgments inflicted more especially in France on the social orders which had been its chief abettors, assistants; viz. the royalty, nobility, and the clergy.

The same was his feeling afterwards when, in the course of the next 14 or 15 years, he saw the vials of Gods wrath poured out, through the same instrumentality, upon the German Empire which had been for many centuries as zealous a cooperator with the Papal Beast in the persecution of Christ’s truth and saints as royal Papal France itself.



Suffice it to say that the 1260 destined years of the Papal Beast, prefigured in Apoc. xi., xiii., xvii., he views as beginning from Justinian’s decree, A.D. 529; and consequently, as ending in 1789 at the French Revolution. (1789 - 529 = 1260yrs.).’

E B Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae, volume 4, 1862






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